volatility3.framework.layers.avml module

Functions that read AVML files.

The user of the file doesn’t have to worry about the compression, but random access is not allowed.

class AVMLLayer(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: NonLinearlySegmentedLayer

A Lime format TranslationLayer.

Lime is generally used to store physical memory images where there are large holes in the physical layer

Basic initializer that allows configurables to access their own config settings.

property address_mask: int

Returns a mask which encapsulates all the active bits of an address for this layer.


Constructs a HierarchicalDictionary of all the options required to build this component in the current context.

Ensures that if the class has been created, it can be recreated using the configuration built Inheriting classes must override this to ensure any dependent classes update their configurations too

Return type:


property config: HierarchicalDict

The Hierarchical configuration Dictionary for this Configurable object.

property config_path: str

The configuration path on which this configurable lives.

property context: ContextInterface

The context object that this configurable belongs to/configuration is stored in.

property dependencies: List[str]

Returns a list of the lower layers that this layer is dependent upon.


Causes a DataLayer to close any open handles, etc.

Systems that make use of Data Layers should call destroy when they are done with them. This will close all handles, and make the object unreadable (exceptions will be thrown using a DataLayer after destruction)

Return type:


classmethod get_requirements()

Returns a list of Requirement objects for this type of layer.

Return type:


is_valid(offset, length=1)

Returns whether the address offset can be translated to a valid address.

Return type:


classmethod make_subconfig(context, base_config_path, **kwargs)

Convenience function to allow constructing a new randomly generated sub-configuration path, containing each element from kwargs.

  • context (ContextInterface) – The context in which to store the new configuration

  • base_config_path (str) – The base configuration path on which to build the new configuration

  • kwargs – Keyword arguments that are used to populate the new configuration path


The newly generated full configuration path

Return type:


mapping(offset, length, ignore_errors=False)

Returns a sorted iterable of (offset, length, mapped_offset, mapped_length, layer) mappings.

Return type:

Iterable[Tuple[int, int, int, int, str]]

property maximum_address: int

Returns the maximum valid address of the space.

property metadata: Mapping

Returns a ReadOnly copy of the metadata published by this layer.

property minimum_address: int

Returns the minimum valid address of the space.

property name: str

Returns the layer name.

read(offset, length, pad=False)

Reads an offset for length bytes and returns ‘bytes’ (not ‘str’) of length size.

Return type:


scan(context, scanner, progress_callback=None, sections=None)

Scans a Translation layer by chunk.

Note: this will skip missing/unmappable chunks of memory

Return type:



The output iterable from the scanner object having been run against the layer

classmethod unsatisfied(context, config_path)

Returns a list of the names of all unsatisfied requirements.

Since a satisfied set of requirements will return [], it can be used in tests as follows:

unmet = configurable.unsatisfied(context, config_path)
if unmet:
    raise RuntimeError("Unsatisfied requirements: {}".format(unmet)
Return type:

Dict[str, RequirementInterface]

write(offset, value)

Writes a value at offset, distributing the writing across any underlying mapping.

Return type:


class AVMLStacker[source]

Bases: StackerLayerInterface

exclusion_list: List[str] = []

The list operating systems/first-level plugin hierarchy that should exclude this stacker

classmethod stack(context, layer_name, progress_callback=None)[source]

Method to determine whether this builder can operate on the named layer. If so, modify the context appropriately.

Returns the name of any new layer stacked on top of this layer or None. The stacking is therefore strictly linear rather than tree driven.

Configuration options provided by the context are ignored, and defaults are to be used by this method to build a space where possible.

  • context (ContextInterface) – Context in which to construct the higher layer

  • layer_name (str) – Name of the layer to stack on top of

  • progress_callback (Optional[Callable[[float, str], None]]) – A callback function to indicate progress through a scan (if one is necessary)

Return type:


stack_order = 10

The order in which to attempt stacking, the lower the earlier

classmethod stacker_slow_warning()
exception SnappyException[source]

Bases: VolatilityException


Exception.add_note(note) – add a note to the exception


Exception.with_traceback(tb) – set self.__traceback__ to tb and return self.


Uncompress a snappy compressed string.