Source code for volatility3.cli

# This file is Copyright 2019 Volatility Foundation and licensed under the Volatility Software License 1.0
# which is available at
"""A CommandLine User Interface for the volatility framework.

User interfaces make use of the framework to:
 * determine available plugins
 * request necessary information for those plugins from the user
 * determine what "automagic" modules will be used to populate information the user does not provide
 * run the plugin
 * display the results
import argparse
import inspect
import io
import json
import logging
import os
import sys
import tempfile
import traceback
from typing import Any, Dict, List, Tuple, Type, Union
from urllib import parse, request

from volatility3.cli import text_filter
import volatility3.plugins
import volatility3.symbols
from volatility3 import framework
from volatility3.cli import text_renderer, volargparse
from volatility3.framework import (
from volatility3.framework.automagic import stacker
from volatility3.framework.configuration import requirements

# Make sure we log everything

rootlog = logging.getLogger()
vollog = logging.getLogger(__name__)
console = logging.StreamHandler()
formatter = logging.Formatter("%(levelname)-8s %(name)-12s: %(message)s")
# Trim the console down by default

[docs]class PrintedProgress(object): """A progress handler that prints the progress value and the description onto the command line.""" def __init__(self): self._max_message_len = 0 def __call__(self, progress: Union[int, float], description: str = None): """A simple function for providing text-based feedback. .. warning:: Only for development use. Args: progress: Percentage of progress of the current procedure """ message = f"\rProgress: {round(progress, 2): 7.2f}\t\t{description or ''}" message_len = len(message) self._max_message_len = max([self._max_message_len, message_len]) sys.stderr.write(message + (" " * (self._max_message_len - message_len)) + "\r")
[docs]class MuteProgress(PrintedProgress): """A dummy progress handler that produces no output when called.""" def __call__(self, progress: Union[int, float], description: str = None): pass
[docs]class CommandLine: """Constructs a command-line interface object for users to run plugins.""" CLI_NAME = "volatility" def __init__(self): self.setup_logging() self.output_dir = None
[docs] @classmethod def setup_logging(cls): # Delay the setting of vollog for those that want to import volatility3.cli (issue #241) rootlog.setLevel(1) rootlog.addHandler(console)
[docs] def run(self): """Executes the command line module, taking the system arguments, determining the plugin to run and then running it.""" volatility3.framework.require_interface_version(2, 0, 0) renderers = dict( [ (, x) for x in framework.class_subclasses(text_renderer.CLIRenderer) ] ) # Load up system defaults delayed_logs, default_config = self.load_system_defaults("vol.json") parser = volargparse.HelpfulArgParser( add_help=False, prog=self.CLI_NAME, description="An open-source memory forensics framework", ) parser.add_argument( "-h", "--help", action="help", default=argparse.SUPPRESS, help="Show this help message and exit, for specific plugin options use '{} <pluginname> --help'".format( parser.prog ), ) parser.add_argument( "-c", "--config", help="Load the configuration from a json file", default=None, type=str, ) parser.add_argument( "--parallelism", help="Enables parallelism (defaults to off if no argument given)", nargs="?", choices=["processes", "threads", "off"], const="processes", default=None, type=str, ) parser.add_argument( "-e", "--extend", help="Extend the configuration with a new (or changed) setting", default=None, action="append", ) parser.add_argument( "-p", "--plugin-dirs", help="Semi-colon separated list of paths to find plugins", default="", type=str, ) parser.add_argument( "-s", "--symbol-dirs", help="Semi-colon separated list of paths to find symbols", default="", type=str, ) parser.add_argument( "-v", "--verbosity", help="Increase output verbosity", default=0, action="count", ) parser.add_argument( "-l", "--log", help="Log output to a file as well as the console", default=None, type=str, ) parser.add_argument( "-o", "--output-dir", help="Directory in which to output any generated files", default=os.getcwd(), type=str, ) parser.add_argument( "-q", "--quiet", help="Remove progress feedback", default=False, action="store_true", ) parser.add_argument( "-r", "--renderer", metavar="RENDERER", help=f"Determines how to render the output ({', '.join(list(renderers))})", default="quick", choices=list(renderers), ) parser.add_argument( "-f", "--file", metavar="FILE", default=None, type=str, help="Shorthand for --single-location=file:// if single-location is not defined", ) parser.add_argument( "--write-config", help="Write configuration JSON file out to config.json", default=False, action="store_true", ) parser.add_argument( "--save-config", help="Save configuration JSON file to a file", default=None, type=str, ) parser.add_argument( "--clear-cache", help="Clears out all short-term cached items", default=False, action="store_true", ) parser.add_argument( "--cache-path", help=f"Change the default path ({constants.CACHE_PATH}) used to store the cache", default=constants.CACHE_PATH, type=str, ) parser.add_argument( "--offline", help="Do not search online for additional JSON files", default=False, action="store_true", ) parser.add_argument( "--filters", help="List of filters to apply to the output (in the form of [+-]columname,pattern[!])", default=[], action="append", ) parser.set_defaults(**default_config) # We have to filter out help, otherwise parse_known_args will trigger the help message before having # processed the plugin choice or had the plugin subparser added. known_args = [arg for arg in sys.argv if arg != "--help" and arg != "-h"] partial_args, _ = parser.parse_known_args(known_args) banner_output = sys.stdout if renderers[partial_args.renderer].structured_output: banner_output = sys.stderr banner_output.write(f"Volatility 3 Framework {constants.PACKAGE_VERSION}\n") ### Start up logging if partial_args.log: file_logger = logging.FileHandler(partial_args.log) file_logger.setLevel(1) file_formatter = logging.Formatter( datefmt="%y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", fmt="%(asctime)s %(name)-12s %(levelname)-8s %(message)s", ) file_logger.setFormatter(file_formatter) rootlog.addHandler(file_logger)"Logging started") self.order_extra_verbose_levels() if partial_args.verbosity < 3: if partial_args.verbosity < 1: sys.tracebacklimit = None console.setLevel(logging.WARNING - (partial_args.verbosity * 10)) else: console.setLevel(logging.DEBUG - (partial_args.verbosity - 2)) for level, msg in delayed_logs: vollog.log(level, msg) ### Alter constants if necessary if partial_args.plugin_dirs: volatility3.plugins.__path__ = [ os.path.abspath(p) for p in partial_args.plugin_dirs.split(";") ] + constants.PLUGINS_PATH if partial_args.symbol_dirs: volatility3.symbols.__path__ = [ os.path.abspath(p) for p in partial_args.symbol_dirs.split(";") ] + constants.SYMBOL_BASEPATHS if partial_args.cache_path: constants.CACHE_PATH = partial_args.cache_path"Volatility plugins path: {volatility3.plugins.__path__}")"Volatility symbols path: {volatility3.symbols.__path__}") # Set the PARALLELISM if partial_args.parallelism == "processes": constants.PARALLELISM = constants.Parallelism.Multiprocessing elif partial_args.parallelism == "threads": constants.PARALLELISM = constants.Parallelism.Threading else: constants.PARALLELISM = constants.Parallelism.Off if partial_args.clear_cache: framework.clear_cache() if partial_args.offline: constants.OFFLINE = partial_args.offline # Do the initialization ctx = contexts.Context() # Construct a blank context failures = framework.import_files( volatility3.plugins, True ) # Will not log as console's default level is WARNING if failures: parser.epilog = ( "The following plugins could not be loaded (use -vv to see why): " + ", ".join(sorted(failures)) ) automagics = automagic.available(ctx) plugin_list = framework.list_plugins() seen_automagics = set() chosen_configurables_list = {} for amagic in automagics: if amagic in seen_automagics: continue seen_automagics.add(amagic) if isinstance(amagic, interfaces.configuration.ConfigurableInterface): self.populate_requirements_argparse(parser, amagic.__class__) subparser = parser.add_subparsers( title="Plugins", dest="plugin", description="For plugin specific options, run '{} <plugin> --help'".format( self.CLI_NAME ), action=volargparse.HelpfulSubparserAction, ) for plugin in sorted(plugin_list): plugin_parser = subparser.add_parser( plugin, help=plugin_list[plugin].__doc__ ) self.populate_requirements_argparse(plugin_parser, plugin_list[plugin]) ### # PASS TO UI ### # Hand the plugin requirements over to the CLI (us) and let it construct the config tree # Run the argparser args = parser.parse_args() if args.plugin is None: parser.error("Please select a plugin to run") vollog.log( constants.LOGLEVEL_VVV, f"Cache directory used: {constants.CACHE_PATH}" ) plugin = plugin_list[args.plugin] chosen_configurables_list[args.plugin] = plugin base_config_path = "plugins" plugin_config_path = interfaces.configuration.path_join( base_config_path, plugin.__name__ ) # Special case the -f argument because people use is so frequently # It has to go here so it can be overridden by single-location if it's defined # NOTE: This will *BREAK* if LayerStacker, or the automagic configuration system, changes at all ### if args.file: try: single_location = requirements.URIRequirement.location_from_file( args.file ) ctx.config["automagic.LayerStacker.single_location"] = single_location except ValueError as excp: parser.error(str(excp)) # UI fills in the config, here we load it from the config file and do it before we process the CL parameters if args.config: with open(args.config, "r") as f: json_val = json.load(f) ctx.config.splice( plugin_config_path, interfaces.configuration.HierarchicalDict(json_val), ) # It should be up to the UI to determine which automagics to run, so this is before BACK TO THE FRAMEWORK automagics = automagic.choose_automagic(automagics, plugin) for amagic in automagics: chosen_configurables_list[amagic.__class__.__name__] = amagic if ctx.config.get("automagic.LayerStacker.stackers", None) is None: ctx.config["automagic.LayerStacker.stackers"] = stacker.choose_os_stackers( plugin ) self.output_dir = args.output_dir if not os.path.exists(self.output_dir): parser.error( f"The output directory specified does not exist: {self.output_dir}" ) self.populate_config(ctx, chosen_configurables_list, args, plugin_config_path) if args.extend: for extension in args.extend: if "=" not in extension: raise ValueError( "Invalid extension (extensions must be of the format \"conf.path.value='value'\")" ) address, value = extension[: extension.find("=")], json.loads( extension[extension.find("=") + 1 :] ) ctx.config[address] = value ### # BACK TO THE FRAMEWORK ### constructed = None try: progress_callback = PrintedProgress() if args.quiet: progress_callback = MuteProgress() constructed = plugins.construct_plugin( ctx, automagics, plugin, base_config_path, progress_callback, self.file_handler_class_factory(), ) if args.write_config: vollog.warning( "Use of --write-config has been deprecated, replaced by --save-config <filename>" ) args.save_config = "config.json" if args.save_config: vollog.debug("Writing out configuration data to {args.save_config}") if os.path.exists(os.path.abspath(args.save_config)): parser.error( f"Cannot write configuration: file {args.save_config} already exists" ) with open(args.save_config, "w") as f: json.dump( dict(constructed.build_configuration()), f, sort_keys=True, indent=2, ) f.write("\n") except exceptions.UnsatisfiedException as excp: self.process_unsatisfied_exceptions(excp) parser.exit( 1, f"Unable to validate the plugin requirements: {[x for x in excp.unsatisfied]}\n", ) try: # Construct and run the plugin if constructed: grid = renderer = renderers[args.renderer]() renderer.filter = text_filter.CLIFilter(grid, args.filters) renderer.render(grid) except exceptions.VolatilityException as excp: self.process_exceptions(excp)
[docs] @classmethod def location_from_file(cls, filename: str) -> str: """Returns the URL location from a file parameter (which may be a URL) Args: filename: The path to the file (either an absolute, relative, or URL path) Returns: The URL for the location of the file """ vollog.debug( f"{__name__}.location_from_file has been deprecated and moved to requirements.URIRequirement.location_from_file" ) return requirements.URIRequirement.location_from_file(filename)
[docs] def load_system_defaults( self, filename: str ) -> Tuple[List[Tuple[int, str]], Dict[str, Any]]: """Modify the main configuration based on the default configuration override""" # Build the config path default_config_path = os.path.join( os.path.expanduser("~"), ".config", "volatility3", filename ) if sys.platform == "win32": default_config_path = os.path.join( os.environ.get("APPDATA", os.path.expanduser("~")), "volatility3", filename, ) delayed_logs = [] # Process it if the files exist if os.path.exists(default_config_path): with open(default_config_path, "rb") as config_json: result = json.load(config_json) if not isinstance(result, dict): delayed_logs.append( ( logging.INFO, f"Default configuration file {default_config_path} does not contain a dictionary", ) ) else: delayed_logs.append( ( logging.INFO, f"Loading default configuration options from {default_config_path}", ) ) delayed_logs.append( ( logging.DEBUG, f"Loaded configuration: {json.dumps(result, indent = 2, sort_keys = True)}", ) ) return delayed_logs, result return delayed_logs, {}
[docs] def process_exceptions(self, excp): """Provide useful feedback if an exception occurs during a run of a plugin.""" # Ensure there's nothing in the cache sys.stdout.write("\n\n") sys.stdout.flush() sys.stderr.flush() # Log the full exception at a high level for easy access fulltrace = traceback.TracebackException.from_exception(excp).format(chain=True) vollog.debug("".join(fulltrace)) if isinstance(excp, exceptions.InvalidAddressException): general = "Volatility was unable to read a requested page:" if isinstance(excp, exceptions.SwappedInvalidAddressException): detail = f"Swap error {hex(excp.invalid_address)} in layer {excp.layer_name} ({excp})" caused_by = [ "No suitable swap file having been provided (locate and provide the correct swap file)", "An intentionally invalid page (operating system protection)", ] elif isinstance(excp, exceptions.PagedInvalidAddressException): detail = f"Page error {hex(excp.invalid_address)} in layer {excp.layer_name} ({excp})" caused_by = [ "Memory smear during acquisition (try re-acquiring if possible)", "An intentionally invalid page lookup (operating system protection)", "A bug in the plugin/volatility3 (re-run with -vvv and file a bug)", ] else: detail = ( f"{hex(excp.invalid_address)} in layer {excp.layer_name} ({excp})" ) caused_by = [ "The base memory file being incomplete (try re-acquiring if possible)", "Memory smear during acquisition (try re-acquiring if possible)", "An intentionally invalid page lookup (operating system protection)", "A bug in the plugin/volatility3 (re-run with -vvv and file a bug)", ] elif isinstance(excp, exceptions.SymbolError): general = "Volatility experienced a symbol-related issue:" detail = f"{excp.table_name}{constants.BANG}{excp.symbol_name}: {excp}" caused_by = [ "An invalid symbol table", "A plugin requesting a bad symbol", "A plugin requesting a symbol from the wrong table", ] elif isinstance(excp, exceptions.SymbolSpaceError): general = "Volatility experienced an issue related to a symbol table:" detail = f"{excp}" caused_by = [ "An invalid symbol table", "A plugin requesting a bad symbol", "A plugin requesting a symbol from the wrong table", ] elif isinstance(excp, exceptions.LayerException): general = f"Volatility experienced a layer-related issue: {excp.layer_name}" detail = f"{excp}" caused_by = [ "A faulty layer implementation (re-run with -vvv and file a bug)" ] elif isinstance(excp, exceptions.MissingModuleException): general = f"Volatility could not import a necessary module: {excp.module}" detail = f"{excp}" caused_by = [ "A required python module is not installed (install the module and re-run)" ] else: general = "Volatility encountered an unexpected situation." detail = "" caused_by = [ "Please re-run using with -vvv and file a bug with the output", f"at {constants.BUG_URL}", ] # Code that actually renders the exception output = sys.stderr output.write(f"{general}\n") output.write(f"{detail}\n\n") for cause in caused_by: output.write(f" * {cause}\n") output.write("\nNo further results will be produced\n") sys.exit(1)
[docs] def process_unsatisfied_exceptions(self, excp): """Provide useful feedback if an exception occurs during requirement fulfillment.""" # Add a blank newline print("") translation_failed = False symbols_failed = False for config_path in excp.unsatisfied: translation_failed = translation_failed or isinstance( excp.unsatisfied[config_path], configuration.requirements.TranslationLayerRequirement, ) symbols_failed = symbols_failed or isinstance( excp.unsatisfied[config_path], configuration.requirements.SymbolTableRequirement, ) print( f"Unsatisfied requirement {config_path}: {excp.unsatisfied[config_path].description}" ) if translation_failed: print( "\nA translation layer requirement was not fulfilled. Please verify that:\n" "\tA file was provided to create this layer (by -f, --single-location or by config)\n" "\tThe file exists and is readable\n" "\tThe file is a valid memory image and was acquired cleanly" ) if symbols_failed: print( "\nA symbol table requirement was not fulfilled. Please verify that:\n" "\tThe associated translation layer requirement was fulfilled\n" "\tYou have the correct symbol file for the requirement\n" "\tThe symbol file is under the correct directory or zip file\n" "\tThe symbol file is named appropriately or contains the correct banner\n" )
[docs] def populate_config( self, context: interfaces.context.ContextInterface, configurables_list: Dict[ str, Type[interfaces.configuration.ConfigurableInterface] ], args: argparse.Namespace, plugin_config_path: str, ) -> None: """Populate the context config based on the returned args. We have already determined these elements must be descended from ConfigurableInterface Args: context: The volatility3 context to operate on configurables_list: A dictionary of configurable items that can be configured on the plugin args: An object containing the arguments necessary plugin_config_path: The path within the context's config containing the plugin's configuration """ vargs = vars(args) for configurable in configurables_list: for requirement in configurables_list[configurable].get_requirements(): value = vargs.get(, None) if value is not None: if isinstance(requirement, requirements.URIRequirement): if isinstance(value, str): scheme = parse.urlparse(value).scheme if not scheme or len(scheme) <= 1: if not os.path.exists(value): raise FileNotFoundError( f"Non-existent file {value} passed to URIRequirement" ) value = f"file://{request.pathname2url(os.path.abspath(value))}" if isinstance(requirement, requirements.ListRequirement): if not isinstance(value, list): raise TypeError( "Configuration for ListRequirement was not a list: {}".format( ) ) value = [requirement.element_type(x) for x in value] if not inspect.isclass(configurables_list[configurable]): config_path = configurables_list[configurable].config_path else: # We must be the plugin, so name it appropriately: config_path = plugin_config_path extended_path = interfaces.configuration.path_join( config_path, ) context.config[extended_path] = value
[docs] def order_extra_verbose_levels(self): for level, level_value in enumerate( [ constants.LOGLEVEL_V, constants.LOGLEVEL_VV, constants.LOGLEVEL_VVV, constants.LOGLEVEL_VVVV, ] ): logging.addLevelName(level_value, f"DETAIL {level+1}")
[docs] def file_handler_class_factory(self, direct=True): output_dir = self.output_dir class CLIFileHandler(interfaces.plugins.FileHandlerInterface): def _get_final_filename(self): """Gets the final filename""" if output_dir is None: raise TypeError("Output directory is not a string") os.makedirs(output_dir, exist_ok=True) output_filename = os.path.join(output_dir, self.preferred_filename) filename, extension = os.path.splitext(output_filename) counter = 1 while os.path.exists(output_filename): output_filename = f"{filename}-{counter}{extension}" counter += 1 return output_filename class CLIMemFileHandler(io.BytesIO, CLIFileHandler): def __init__(self, filename: str): io.BytesIO.__init__(self) CLIFileHandler.__init__(self, filename) def close(self): # Don't overcommit if self.closed: return None output_filename = self._get_final_filename() with open(output_filename, "wb") as current_file: current_file.write( self._committed = True vollog.log( logging.INFO, f"Saved stored plugin file: {output_filename}" ) super().close() class CLIDirectFileHandler(CLIFileHandler): def __init__(self, filename: str): fd, self._name = tempfile.mkstemp( suffix=".vol3", prefix="tmp_", dir=output_dir ) self._file =, mode="w+b") CLIFileHandler.__init__(self, filename) for item in dir(self._file): if not item.startswith("_") and item not in ( "closed", "close", "mode", "name", ): setattr(self, item, getattr(self._file, item)) def __getattr__(self, item): return getattr(self._file, item) @property def closed(self): return self._file.closed @property def mode(self): return self._file.mode @property def name(self): return def close(self): """Closes and commits the file (by moving the temporary file to the correct name""" # Don't overcommit if self._file.closed: return None output_filename = self._get_final_filename() # Update the filename, which may have changed if a file with # the same name already existed. This needs to be done before # closing the file, otherwise FileHandlerInterface will raise # an exception. Also, the preferred_filename setter only allows # a specific set of characters, where '/' is not in that list self.preferred_filename = os.path.basename(output_filename) self._file.close() os.rename(self._name, output_filename) if direct: return CLIDirectFileHandler else: return CLIMemFileHandler
[docs] def populate_requirements_argparse( self, parser: Union[argparse.ArgumentParser, argparse._ArgumentGroup], configurable: Type[interfaces.configuration.ConfigurableInterface], ): """Adds the plugin's simple requirements to the provided parser. Args: parser: The parser to add the plugin's (simple) requirements to configurable: The plugin object to pull the requirements from """ if not issubclass(configurable, interfaces.configuration.ConfigurableInterface): raise TypeError( f"Expected ConfigurableInterface type, not: {type(configurable)}" ) # Construct an argparse group for requirement in configurable.get_requirements(): additional: Dict[str, Any] = {} if not isinstance( requirement, interfaces.configuration.RequirementInterface ): raise TypeError( "Plugin contains requirements that are not RequirementInterfaces: {}".format( configurable.__name__ ) ) if isinstance(requirement, interfaces.configuration.SimpleTypeRequirement): additional["type"] = requirement.instance_type if isinstance(requirement, requirements.IntRequirement): additional["type"] = lambda x: int(x, 0) if isinstance(requirement, requirements.BooleanRequirement): additional["action"] = "store_true" if "type" in additional: del additional["type"] elif isinstance( requirement, volatility3.framework.configuration.requirements.ListRequirement, ): # Allow a list of integers, specified with the convenient 0x hexadecimal format if requirement.element_type == int: additional["type"] = lambda x: int(x, 0) else: additional["type"] = requirement.element_type nargs = "*" if requirement.optional else "+" additional["nargs"] = nargs elif isinstance( requirement, volatility3.framework.configuration.requirements.ChoiceRequirement, ): additional["type"] = str additional["choices"] = requirement.choices else: continue parser.add_argument( "--" +"_", "-"), help=requirement.description, default=requirement.default,, required=not requirement.optional, **additional, )
[docs]def main(): """A convenience function for constructing and running the :class:`CommandLine`'s run method.""" CommandLine().run()