volatility3.framework.layers.lime module

exception LimeFormatException(layer_name, *args)[source]

Bases: LayerException

Thrown when an error occurs with the underlying Lime file format.


Exception.with_traceback(tb) – set self.__traceback__ to tb and return self.

class LimeLayer(context, config_path, name)[source]

Bases: SegmentedLayer

A Lime format TranslationLayer.

Lime is generally used to store physical memory images where there are large holes in the physical layer

Basic initializer that allows configurables to access their own config settings.

MAGIC = 1281969477
property address_mask: int

Returns a mask which encapsulates all the active bits of an address for this layer.

Return type



Constructs a HierarchicalDictionary of all the options required to build this component in the current context.

Ensures that if the class has been created, it can be recreated using the configuration built Inheriting classes must override this to ensure any dependent classes update their configurations too

Return type


property config: HierarchicalDict

The Hierarchical configuration Dictionary for this Configurable object.

Return type


property config_path: str

The configuration path on which this configurable lives.

Return type


property context: ContextInterface

The context object that this configurable belongs to/configuration is stored in.

Return type


property dependencies: List[str]

Returns a list of the lower layers that this layer is dependent upon.

Return type



Causes a DataLayer to close any open handles, etc.

Systems that make use of Data Layers should call destroy when they are done with them. This will close all handles, and make the object unreadable (exceptions will be thrown using a DataLayer after destruction)

Return type


classmethod get_requirements()

Returns a list of Requirement objects for this type of layer.

Return type


is_valid(offset, length=1)

Returns whether the address offset can be translated to a valid address.

Return type


classmethod make_subconfig(context, base_config_path, **kwargs)

Convenience function to allow constructing a new randomly generated sub-configuration path, containing each element from kwargs.

  • context (ContextInterface) – The context in which to store the new configuration

  • base_config_path (str) – The base configuration path on which to build the new configuration

  • kwargs – Keyword arguments that are used to populate the new configuration path


The newly generated full configuration path

Return type


mapping(offset, length, ignore_errors=False)

Returns a sorted iterable of (offset, length, mapped_offset, mapped_length, layer) mappings.

Return type

Iterable[Tuple[int, int, int, int, str]]

property maximum_address: int

Returns the maximum valid address of the space.

Return type


property metadata: Mapping

Returns a ReadOnly copy of the metadata published by this layer.

Return type


property minimum_address: int

Returns the minimum valid address of the space.

Return type


property name: str

Returns the layer name.

Return type


read(offset, length, pad=False)

Reads an offset for length bytes and returns ‘bytes’ (not ‘str’) of length size.

Return type


scan(context, scanner, progress_callback=None, sections=None)

Scans a Translation layer by chunk.

Note: this will skip missing/unmappable chunks of memory

Return type



The output iterable from the scanner object having been run against the layer

translate(offset, ignore_errors=False)
Return type

Tuple[Optional[int], Optional[str]]

classmethod unsatisfied(context, config_path)

Returns a list of the names of all unsatisfied requirements.

Since a satisfied set of requirements will return [], it can be used in tests as follows:

unmet = configurable.unsatisfied(context, config_path)
if unmet:
    raise RuntimeError("Unsatisfied requirements: {}".format(unmet)
Return type

Dict[str, RequirementInterface]

write(offset, value)

Writes a value at offset, distributing the writing across any underlying mapping.

Return type


class LimeStacker[source]

Bases: StackerLayerInterface

exclusion_list: List[str] = []

The list operating systems/first-level plugin hierarchy that should exclude this stacker

classmethod stack(context, layer_name, progress_callback=None)[source]

Method to determine whether this builder can operate on the named layer. If so, modify the context appropriately.

Returns the name of any new layer stacked on top of this layer or None. The stacking is therefore strictly linear rather than tree driven.

Configuration options provided by the context are ignored, and defaults are to be used by this method to build a space where possible.

  • context (ContextInterface) – Context in which to construct the higher layer

  • layer_name (str) – Name of the layer to stack on top of

  • progress_callback (Optional[Callable[[float, str], None]]) – A callback function to indicate progress through a scan (if one is necessary)

Return type


stack_order = 10

The order in which to attempt stacking, the lower the earlier

classmethod stacker_slow_warning()